Вариант № 1 1. Read and translate the text from English: INFLATION Inflation is generally defined as a persistent rise in the general price level with the corresponding rise in output, which leads to a corresponding fall in the purchasing power of money. In this section we shall look briefly at the problems that inflation causes for business and consider whether there are any potential benefits for an enterprise from an inflationary period. Inflation varies considerably in its extent and severity. Hence, the consequences for the business community differ according to circumstances. Mild inflation of a few per cent each year may pose few difficulties for business. However, hyperinflation, which entails enormously high rates of inflation, can create almost insurmountable problems for the government, business consumers and workers. In post war Hungary, the cost of living was published each day and workers were paid daily so as to avoid the value of their earnings falling. Businesses would have experienced great difficulty in costing and pricing their production while the incentive for people to save would have been removed. An economist argue at length about the causes of, and “cures” for, inflation. They would, however, recognize that two general types of inflation exist: demand-pull inflation and cost-push inflation. Demand-pull inflation occurs when demand for a nation's goods and services outstrips that nation's ability to supply these goods and services. This causes prices to rise generally as a means of limiting demand to the available supply. An alternative way that we can look at this type of inflation is to say that it occurs when injections exceed withdrawals and the economy is already stretched (i.e. little available labour or factory space) and there is little scope to increase further its level of activity. Alternatively, inflation can be of the cost-push variety. This takes place when firms, face increasing costs. This could be caused by an increase in wages owing to trade union militancy, the rising costs of imported raw materials and components or companies pushing up prices in order to improve their profit margins.